ITALIAN MANUFACTURERS, TECHNIQUES AND MANUFACTURING METHODS IN PAPER PRODUCTION IN SPAIN

 

Jose Carlos Balmaceda

 

Introduction

Although it is true that European nations owe the use of paper to Arab civilizations, paper was invented in China and it is also true that the transformation of the techniques used by Italian paper manufacturers in the 13th century made paper become a substitute for other media.  However, during almost all of this time, Hispanic-Arab paper had no competitors in foreign markets.  There are many documents that certify the use, sale and distribution of paper not only in the kingdom of Aragon, but also in the rest of the kingdoms in Spain and especially Naples, Sicily [1] and Orient. According to Arab chroniclers, the manufacture of paper in al-Andalus was produced in the cities of Cordoba, [2] Toledo, [3] and Granada, [4] where the paper industry evolved quickly as at the time the Omeya Caliphate becomes a brilliant and generous civilization from the year 912 [5] onwards.  Xàtiva, documented and praised for the quality of its production, by geographer al-Idrisi in the year 1154, [6] continues being the most well-known and prestigious paper production centre of the times.

 

Manuscripts studied in the files of the Crown of Aragon, [7] of the Cathedral of Leon, [8] the Kingdom of Mallorca, [9] and the Kingdom and City of Valencia [10] among other collections are proof of this manufacture.  Besides, technical studies carried out reveal that the fibers and glues used as bindings, the process of manufacture attributed to the Arabs enable us to draw up a time table of ‘xativì’ paper, its expansion and decadence caused by various social and political factors.  Paper manufacture in this city as well as other places in Valencia was transferred to the Christians in 1244 when the area was conquered by Jaime I.  This ruler as well as his successors protected, regulated and backed paper production.  One century later, in 1338 Pedro El Ceremonioso took over paper manufacture and rules that the size of paper should not be reduced by the manufacturers of Valencia as well as those of Xàtiva.  King Pedro IV demands paper should be manufactured according to ancient ways; formats, sizes and weights and in 1341 and 1352 insists on the formats although by then the bad quality of the paper is already noticeable and is presumably caused by the preparation of the pulp among other things, although the main reason was the competition exerted by the new paper being made and its more favorable conditions for use and conservation.  On the other hand, the conquest of Sardinia (1323) would enable more fluid relations with Italy easing imports of Italian paper. As to the 14th and 15th centuries, Italian paper entered the Spanish market which was not being especially looked after by the kings of Aragon and Castille who backed Italian imports to their territories.  Nonetheless, Xàtiva continued producing paper by specialist work shops carried out by converted moors until their expulsion in 1609.

 

The propagation of Italian paper in Spain

Italian import of Arabic paper and its later manufacture in various local centers would produce in it a series of innovations half way through the 13th century.  The Fabriano mills adapted the grinding process of rags and substituted the Arab mill-stone by alternating effect of maces.  The apparition of rigid mould of metallic threads and the inclusion of filigree, the substitution of starch glue for animal source gelatins and the no less important standardization of the formats in Bologna start the era of Italian, Western World paper with its own characteristics. [11]  Afterwards the emigration of Fabriano masters would help the development of the paper centers of Lombardy, Piedmont and Genoa to mention just a few that would have a later influence in Spanish mills.  The existence of watermarks in documents of the 14th century in the kingdoms of the Spanish peninsula, are proof of the co-existence during decades of paper manufacture and the substitution that starts taking place by this paper as opposed to Hispanic-arabic paper.  In this respect the contributions made by Giovanna Derenzini [12] in Italy and Carmen Sistach in Spain, are important contributions among those of other researchers.  Sistach has examined Hispanic-arabic paper and Italian paper, [13] or paper with senyal, a name that is found in the sales documents of paper sold to the Consejo of Valencia towards the beginning of the 14th century, [14] which reveals the excellence of this last type of paper and the decadence of the first until it was almost definitely substituted by the Crown of Aragon as in the mid-fourteenth century and later on in Castile. [15]

 

As well as this, an observation of the watermarks described or reproduced in Spanish corpus doubtlessly leads us to the mills of Fabriano and its surroundings where similar watermarks were produced.  As well as this, the sales registered especially in the Branco offices of the Datini company in the Mediterranean coast confirm this. [16]  On the other hand, Spanish paper mills along with other technological novelties had already included watermark in their productions according to the registration of these in the last half of the 14th century and during the 15th century with the coats of arms of Castile, Aragon, Xàtiva, Barcelona and other places were included in them. [17]

 

 

Watermark of Coat of arms of the city of Xàtiva. ARV. 1401.

 

 

Watermark of Coat of arms of the Kings of the house of Barcelona ARV. 1404.

 

 

Watermark of Coat of arms with crown of the city of Valencia. AMCP. 1416.

 

Besides this, the export companies of Ancona dispatched notable quantities of paper.  Most of these loads reached Barcelona, Mallorca and Valencia from the ports of Pisa and Genoa although it is very likely that almost all was produced by Fabriano and its surroundings via Ancona-Venice.  The expedition was done from the beginning of the century and the sale of paper was done by the merchants' association of Florence. [18]  The Datini branch offices in Barcelona, Valencia and Mallorca, [19] along with their representatives in Murcia and Nazari ruled Granada, received numerous bales of paper and there are still the registrations of its quality, price and watermark.

 

At the same time Catalonian ships arrived at the port of Ancona from Mallorca, Barcelona and Tortosa with loads of wool and returned with reams of paper.  Proof of this important commerce is the existence at the time of a Catalonian consulate in the city of Ancona which remained there until the end of the 15th [20] century.  Although it would be at the beginning of the following century when the name of ‘Genoa paper’ became well known including other Italian regions such as Lombardy, Venice, Tuscany or the cities of Fabriano, Camerino, Bologna, Padua, etc., as all or practically all the paper leaving for the West was shipped from the port of Genoa or marketed by Genoese merchants.  It should be remembered that prior to its apparition as watermark, the coat of arms of Genoa appeared on the bales of the paper, as registered in several Catalonian documents of the mid-fifteenth century.  The frequent appearance of this type of paper in Spain, Sicily and Naples is indisputable.  However, merchandise from Venice, Naples, Germany, Flemish territories and Basque lands reached ports with their loads to Spanish ports and although occasionally they brought paper, usual suppliers of paper were from Genoa, Lombardy, Florence, France and Savoy. [21]

 

The contribution of Italian masters to the Spanish paper industry

As we shall see further on, the arrival and permanence of Italian masters in the Iberian peninsula was constant from the fifteenth century until the end of the eighteenth century (C. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7).  Direct or indirect recipients of the techniques attributed to the Fabrianese manufacturers, initially manufacture of paper in Spain can be attributed to masters from the Marches as in Valencia and Saragossa but also French, Flemish and above all, Genoese masters also arrived, these last being the bearers of the new techniques that they would perfect (C. 1).  Although there were paper mills distributed throughout Spain in the sixteenth century, [22] paper production was insufficient to satisfy the immense needs of the Crown and the administration and religious conversion in its Colonies.  This is stated in documents and manuscripts and above all the permanent demand of authorities and printers [23] of the improvement of the quality of Spanish paper and the requests made to foreign masters, especially those from Genoa to teach their manufacturing techniques to local artisans until the eighteenth century.  The same took place with the distribution and sale of paper which in the sixteenth century already was a product that was almost exclusively brought to Spain by Genoese merchants, a privilege granted by Spanish monarchs because of the financial dependence on Ligurian [24] merchants and bankers.  However, in the first half of the fifteenth century in spite of the commercial monopoly of these merchants in the Spanish peninsula, it is Florentine and Marche merchants who monopolize paper supply to the Valencian Council although the paper was alternatively transported by the Ligurian due to conflicts between Florence and King Alphonso V. [25]

 

C-l   Distribution of Fabrianese paper techniques in the Spanish peninsula

 

 

At the beginning of the century suppliers of paper called ‘tosca’ [26] were Florentine merchants: Guido de Matheu (1402), Lorenzo de Juan (1447) and Lorenzo Romani (1439), a surname that up to the seventeenth century would be associated to high quality of Catalonian paper.  La Marca region [27] registered those of Francisco Marquesano (1427, 1429 and 1442), Agustin Marquesano (1437 to 1440), Francisca, her spouse (1449), Venanzo Marquesano (1447) and Cofre Marquesano (1451).  The Marquesano surname all these merchants had does not mean they belonged to the same family, it is a surname that doubtlessly indicates their origins, such as in the case of Francisco Marquesano stated in documentation as Francisco de Cofre or the more interesting case for us at this time, that of ‘merchant Agostino di Giovanni, of Fabria, Ancona.’  He was known as Agosti or Agustin Marquesano and was granted the right to start his business in the city for ten years in 1442.  Although this was a period of time usually granted, Agustin lived in the city of Valencia for 19 years and as seen above, his wife became the supplier of paper to the Council of Valencia. [28]

 

This is the first foreign manufacturer documented in Spain until this time.  He was the owner of a paper mill known as ‘the poor mill’ located in the area of Campanar and was, according to documents of the time, ‘an active center for paper manufacture’ and ‘is of great benefit and honor for the city,’ [29] as testified by the privileges and guiajes granted to the diverse paper producers that came to work in it.  Now known as Agustm Marquesano, would obtain from King Alphonso V a permit for four Genoese masters and one from Caller (Cagliari-Cerdena), to work in his mill.  It is surprising he chose Genoese masters although we believe this was caused by the impossibility to emigrate of the masters from the Marches due to the successive prohibitions dictated at that time to export know-how beyond the territorial limits of Fabriano.  On the other hand this leads us to suppose that Voltri paper manufacturers had achieved a high degree of specialization.

 

Francisco de Johanni del Porto (Italy) was the first master to arrive in 1448 and would remain in the Fabrianese mills for four months [30] and his permit was renovated for another four and a half years. [31]  This consideration would prove that the introduction of this master would change things in production as a year later, due to the initiative of Agustm Marquesano, masters Thomas Andrach, Hodi Anfos, Berthon Oler and Johan Viu of the shores of Genoa, would settle in the mill for six years and eight months from 1453. [32]  A year later, paper merchant Luca de Pre, from Savona, would obtain a safe-conduit for four years including his family, utensils, merchandise and employees that would arrive at the mill to work [33] (C. 2).  Researcher G. Gayoso Carreira supplied a document [34] on paper manufacture at the end of the 15th century in Tarascona, Saragossa, in the name of paper merchant Jaime Perez de Fano that alludes to the active port of the province of Ancona of La Marca and would be a direct technical contribution to this area of the paper centre where Perez was active until 1533 and production continued by one of his sons (C. 3).

 

Conclusion

Although there is no information available about paper manufacture used in the 15th century in Valencia, the earliest references are dated to the beginning of the 16th century in the inventory of paper mills of Aragon, Catalonia and Castille [35] in which it is possible to assure that with minimal variants, western techniques and methods were used: the hydraulic wheel was used, mortars with their stamping hammers with nails and also without nails for refining the paper.  The rags are selected, cut and fermented.  Work is done with a pair of watermark moulds for each format, the sackcloth’s are inserted and the sheets of paper are glued and pressed.  The paper is shined on marble and with stone of the same quality.  The sinks and basins are made of wood the same as the tables, diablo or sacudidor, the cauldrons are made of metal and the rest of the utensils wood is used, wool and esparto.  A reference is also made of the look out although no clear mention is done of its whereabouts.  Although the building that houses the production in those years in general is a single floor where the machinery and different tasks are distributed.  In some mills paper was dried outside the building.  The inventory of a paper mill in Palomera, Cuenca refers that 'all the body of the house was lined with thick string that reached the closed chamber’, which indicates that this mill lacked a look out or, at least, the type generally used in the 17th century was more precisely a space for drying the sheets of paper and air currents were used that entered the entrance door and the windows of the building.

 

 

Sheets of paper in the open air. Catalonian xilograph of the 18th century.

 

In 1531 it is possible to find preservation proposals of the environment by Jeronimo Fabiano not to send the water used in the basins and contaminate the water that returned to the river, a reason for prohibiting the installation of the mill.  Fabiano projected constructing a large basin or wells and sink ages were used where water could be sent and have it filtered.  He also indicated how filters had to be installed: a double piece made of silk at the exit of the water from the basins and sinks.  In the following century, with the arrival of other masters, construction started of other mills called ‘new plan mills’ with a modern and functional conception of the building.  The Ottonel family installed a mill in 1613 built by Santiago Ottonel that already shows the substitution of the wooden boards by those of troglios or stone piles also called ‘stone boxes’, as described by Gian Domenico Peri (1651), [36] for the fermentation of the rags and storing the pulp.  The basins also, protected by metal sheets and in some cases wooden basins were substituted by stone or masonry basins that would be frequently used from this time onwards.

 

 

Paper mill building of the Manuel Centurion company built towards the end of the 17th century in Maro [37] (Malaga), photograph supplied by JCB.

 

On the other hand, these factories would specialize almost exclusively in white quality paper. However the quality always depended on the expertise of the masters, clearness of the water and quality of the rags.  At this time improvements in quality of a single factory was always related to the different privileges in bargaining for purchase of them.  These installations constituted a small industrial complex with several buildings for production as happened in Palomera (Cuenca), Arroyo de la Miel (Malaga) and in Galicia where the structure is similar to the Voltriese cartiera inaugurated by Fabbriche en Voltri; the building had three floors, with the ground floor being the work floor or the so called ‘work area’, the first floor was for the residence of the supervisors and a sector was for sizing the sheets of paper and the second and last floor were destined for drying the paper with a carefully studied system of air flow control.

 

The installations were completed with a house for the patron, living quarters for the workers, a church or chapel and plots for agriculture activity mainly.  It was also due to these manufacturers the creation of ponds for damming water which at times of drought enabled the factory to continue operations, increasing or maintaining the production of the mills during the drought.  The absence of a satinating mace or hydraulic drop hammer in the first inventories is another element that confirms that this process was done in the Genoese manner, who incorporated this element much later, [38] substituting smooth stone used in smoothing the paper.  The men and women that accompanied the master were enabled to carry out all the paper manufacturing operations; carpenter, cleaner, placement worker, raiser, vat worker and hall master who were respectively in charge of the manufacture and maintenance of the machinery, preparation of the pulp and creation and sizing of the sheets of paper, the rest of the tasks were carried out by women and children as documented in the ever more frequent mills built in Spain.

 

C-2 Valencia

 

Doc.

Paper manufacturer

From

Destination

1448

Agostino di Giovanni)

Fabria - Ancona

Valencia (Campanar)

1448

Francisco de Johani del Porto

Cagliari (Sardinia)

Valencia (Campanar)

1453

Tomas Andrach

Genoa

Valencia (Campanar)

1453

Hodi Anfos

Genoa

Valencia (Campanar)

1453

Bertran Oler

Genoa

Valencia (Campanar)

1453

Johan Viu

Genoa

Valencia (Campanar)

1454

Luca de Pre

Savona (Genoa)

Valencia (Campanar)

1690

Giacomo Pellerano

Genoa

Alicante

1780

Antonio Barbarrosa

Genoa

Alicante (Alcoy)

 

C. 3 Aragon

 

Doc.

Paper manufacturer

From

Destination

Fin s-XV

Jaime Perez

Fano (Ancona)

Saragossa (Tarazona)

1512

Esteban de escarcela

Torino

Saragossa (Villanueva de Gállego)

 

C. 4 Catalufia

 

Doc.

Paper manufacturer

From

Destination

1477

Tomas Guerco

Genoa

Catalonia

1477

Francesco Guerco

Genoa

Catalonia

1477

Marchio Labert

Genoa

Catalonia

1522

Tomas Golo (Angulo)

Genoa

Catalonia

1525

Talamo o terrino de Fabiano

Genoa

Barcelona (Reixac)

1527

Jacques de Piamont

Piedmont

Catalonia

1531

Bautista Melibe

Genoa

Barcelona (Reixac)

1538

Benito Bosan (Bozzano)

Genoa

Barcelona (Reixac)

1538

Stefhano Patron (Patrone)

Genoa

Barcelona (Reixac)

1541

Thalamo de Fabian

Genoa

Barcelona (Reixac)

1541

Tomas Golo

Genoa

Barcelona (Reixac)

1533

Johannes Bathista Mayner

Genoa

Barcelona

1544

Beneto Borsa

Genoa

Barcelona (Montcada)

1556

Bartolomeo Lipora

Genoa

Barcelona (Jonqueres)

1570

Francesco Pinyo

Voltri (Genoa)

Catalonia

1571

Simo de Agramonte

Genoa

Barcelona (Montcada)

1574

Laurencio Bosa (Bozzano)

Genoa

Barcelona (Reixac)

1592

Pascuale Pollera

Voltri (Genoa)

Barcelona (Reixac)

1597

Marti Timo

Genoa

Catalonia

1608

Pere Murtra (Muratore)

Genoa

Catalonia

 

C. 5 Andalucia

 

Doc.

Paper manufacturer

From

Destination

1531

Xeronimo de Fabian

Genoa

Granada

1581

Merlo de Scote

Italy

Jaen (Arbuniel)

1730

Gian Giacomo Bonicelli

Voltri (Genoa)

Granada

1781

Felix Solesio

Finale Ligure

Malaga (Torremolinos)

1784

Felix Solesio

Finale Ligure

Malaga (Arroyo de la Miel)

1787

Jose Arado

Genoa

Malaga (Arroyo de la Miel)

1787

Domenico Guighiotti

Genoa

Malaga (Arroyo de la Miel)

1800

Francisco y Giuseppe Guighiotti

Genoa

Malaga (Mijas)

1820

Francisco Guighiotti

Genoa

Malaga (Torremolinos)

 

C. 6 Castilla

 

Doc.

Paper manufacturer

From

Destination

1515

Juan Thomas Favario

Milan

Segovia

1536

Pedro de Escarzela e hijo

Turin

Cuenca (Hoz del Huetar)

1538

Nicolas Veneciano

Venice

Cuenca (Hoz del Huetar)

1613

Juan y Agustin de Ottonel

Voltri (Genoa)

Cuenca (Palomera)

1638

Giovanni y Antonio Picone

Voltri (Genoa)

Cuenca (Palomera)

1625

Giambattista Fravega

Genoa

Segovia

1685

Familia Fragas

Genoa

Segovia

1685

Cristobal Steardo

Mele (Genoa)

Segovia

1685

Antonio Carbone

Mele (Genoa)

Segovia

1685

Manuel Varon

Mele (Genoa)

Segovia

1683

Manuelo y Niceto Rovereto

Genoa

Segovia

1714

Genoa

Avila

1774

Felix Solesio

Finale Ligure (Genoa)

Avila (La Adrada)

 

C. 7 Galicia

 

Doc.

Paper manufacturer

From

Destination

1710

Bartolomeo Piombino

Genoa

La Coruña (Faramello)

1710

Giuseppe Gambino

Genoa

La Coruña (Faramello)

 

Notes

1. Madurell, J. M., Marimon, I., (1972), El papel a les terres Catalanes. Ed. S. V. Casajuana, Barcelona. Burs reveals a contract from the files of the cathedral of Barcelona which contains the list of the load that left for Sicily and other places towards the end of 1267 where an annotation of ‘paper from Murcia’ is stated which could be proof of the existence of subsidiary paper industries. Burns, R. I., S. I., El papel de Xdtiva, City Hall of Xdtiva, Spain, 1999, p. 28.

2. Geographer Muqaddsi alludes to paper manufacture in al-Andalus during the tenth century. Remie Constable, O., Comercio y comerciantes en la Espana Musulmana. Ed. Omega. Barcelona, Spain, 1997, p. 231. Mármol Bernal, E., Cordoba, la ciudad de los libros. Acts of the Fifth National Congress of the History of Paper in Spain, AHHP, Sarria de Ter. Catalonia, 2003, pp. 89-91.

3. Judah Ha-Levi around 1125 sent five hundred pages of paper from Toledo to his friend Halfon b. Nethanel in Egypt. Pedro el Venerable in 1142 mentions Jewish books produced with scrap paper. Remie Constable, O., op. cit., p. 231. The manufacture of the Breviarium et misale mozarabicum held in the Monastery of Silos is believed to be made out of this type of paper.

4. Goitein remarks the quality of Andalusian paper stating in a letter in Granada dated 1130 that was written on the ‘best paper ever seen by me in the Geniza. It is almost completely white, durable and pleasantly smooth’, mentioned by Remie Constable, O., op. cit. p. 231. Ten coloured letters sent by the King of Granada to Jaime II of Aragon dated between 1306 and 1310 are studied in Sistach, C., El papel drabe en la Corona de Aragon. Actas del II Congreso Nacional de Historia del Papel en Espana, AHHP, Cuenca, 1997, p. 75-76.

5. Osma Mujta Al-Cabbadi, Las artes del libro en al-Andalus y el Magreb (Siglos IVH/X d C-VIII H/XV d C), Ed. El Viso, Madrid, 2005.

6. Idrisi, Geografia de Espana, Anubar ediciones, Valencia, 1974.

7. Sistach, C., op. cit.; (2003), Microscopio y reactivos son espejo del papel. Actas del V Congreso Nacional de Historia del Papel en Espana, AHHP, Sarria de Ter. Cataluna, 1997, pp. 45-50.

8. Buron Castro, T, Papel hispano-drabe en el Archivo de la Catedral de Leon. Actas del V Congreso Nacional de Historia del Papel en Espana, AHHP, Sarria de Ter. Cataluna, 2003. pp. 97-101.

9. Mut Calafell, A., Existieron molinos de papel en la Mayurqa Musulmana. Actas del III Congreso Nacional de Historia del papel en Espana. Asociacion Hispanica de Historiadores del Papel, (AHHP), Banyeres de Mariola, Alicante, 1999, pp. 39-55.

10. Burns, R. I., El papel de Xdtiva, Ayuntamiento de Xdtiva, Spain; Alonso Llorca, J., (2001), La fabricacion de papel en Xdtiva, Actas del IV Congreso Nacional de Historia del Papel en Espana, (AHHP), Cordoba, 1999, pp. 89-95.

11. Castagnari, G., L'arte della carta nel secolo di Federico II, in Federico II e le Marche, Cosimo Damiano Fonseca, Editor, 1994. Ed. Luca.

12. Derenzini, G., La carta occidentale nei manoscritti greci datati del XIII e XIV secolo, in Contributi italiani alia diffusione della carta in occidente tra XIV e XV secolo, Castagnari, G., Editor, Fabriano, 1990, Italy, pp. 101-135.

13. Sistach, C., El papel drabe, op. cit., pp. 71-78, Aportacion al estudio del papel sin filigranas en la documentacion de la Corona de Aragon, Actas del IV Congreso Nacional de Historia del Papel en Espana, AHHP, Cordoba, 1997, pp. 97-105.

14. ‘Senyal del carro’, ‘Senyal de la campana o real’.

15. Burón Castro, T, Registers of Hispanic Arabic Paper from 1270 to 1468, p. 95.

16. Ashtor, E., Il commercio Anconetano con il Mediterraneo Occidentale nel basso Medioevo. Ancona, 1982. Di Stefano, E., (2005), La carta, niarchigiana sul mercato europeo e il caso di Camerino nei secoli XIV-XV, in «Proposte e ricerche», No. 54, pp. 194-221.

17. Hidalgo Brinquis, M. C, Spanish Watemarks in «Le papier au Moyen Age: histoire et techniques», Bibliologia 19, Brepols, 1999, pp. 212-213.

18. Bastianoni, C, Catoni, G., Impressum Senis (Storie di tipografi, incunaboli e librai), Accademia Senese degli Intronati. Siena, 1988.

19. Ashtor, E., op. cit., Di Stefano, E., op. cit.

20. Ashtor, E., op. cit.

21. Hinojosa Montalvo, J., Sobre mercaderes extrapeninsulares en la Valencia del siglo XV.  Revista Saitibi, No. 26. Valencia, 1976, pp. 59-92; Salvador, E., La economia Valenciana en el siglo XVI, Universidad de Valencia, 1972.

22. Gayoso Carreira, G., Historia del papel en Espana, Diputacion Provincial de Vigo, 1995. T. I. II. III. Valls, O., Subirà, I., op. cit.; Madurell, J. M., Marimon, I. op. cit.; Gutierrez, M., Poch, I., Full a Full. La Indústria Papelera de L'Anoia (1700-1998), l’Abadia de Monserrat, Barcelona, 1999; Balmaceda, J. C, La contribucion genovesa al desarrollo de la manufactura papelera espanola, CAHIP, 2005, Spain, pp. 84-92.

23. Balmaceda, J. C., op. cit., pp. 65-84.

24. Ibid, pp. 21-36

25. Florentine merchants were expelled from the Crown of Aragon and their merchandise was banned until regulated with the signing in Naples, of the reconciliation between Venice, Milan and Florence in 1455.

26. In the registers for paper in 1400 the word ‘tosca’ or ‘toscha’ is added.

27. Paper factories of Fabriano, Fermignano, Camerino and Pioraco were located in this region.

28. Archivo Municipal de Valencia, (AMV), Claveria comuna, 0-25, f. 194r; Cabanes Pecourt, M. D., El Consejo valenciano y la compra de papel en la primera mitad del siglo XV. Actas IV Congreso Nacional de Historia del Papel en Espana, AHHP, Cordoba, 2001, pp. 143-148.

29. ‘... se fahia novament paper, go qui era una notable introduccio en haches regne e molt de gran benefici e honor de la dita ciutat e cosa publica de aquella, car ans dara a qui per tot lo temps pasta era necessari y ne fos portat d'altres parts stranyes a les cuals redundava lo propit e utilitat...’'

30. Archivo del Reino de Valencia, (ARV), Baih’a general e Intendencia, book No. 1151 f. 498r and 499v.

31. ARV, Bailía general e Intendencia, book No. 1150 f. 407v.

32. ARV, Bailía general e Intendencia, book No. 1151 f. 647r.v.

33. ARV, Bailía general e Intendencia, book No. 1152 f. 848v - 849v. Documentos publicados por Ma Carbonell Boria, J., Ma Manclús Cuñat, I., Papeleros italianos en Valencia, Actas III Congreso Nacional de Historia del Papel en Espana, AHHP, Cuenca, 1999.

34. APZ, Esc. Juan Arruelo, Leg. 9. E3, folio 206; Gayoso Carreira, G., op. cit. p. 60.

35. The mills of Villanueva de Gallego, Tarazona, Zaragoza (1515) and Cuenca.

36. Peri, G. D., I frutti di Albaro, Genoa, 1651, Italy.

37. Balmaceda, J. C, Los fabricantes del papel del molino de Maro, Investigacion y tecnica del papel, No. 145, 2000, pp. 342-362.

38. This element is used in Voltri in 1660, Calegari, M., Fossati, F., Le cartiere genovesi: un po’ di storia, Cuad, 14, Genoa, 1988.

 

 

This article was first published in The use of techniques and work by papermakers from Fabriano in Italy and Europe, Giancarlo Castagnari (Ed.).  © Cartiere Miliani Fabriano – Fedrigoni Group, p. 95-108.